Fujian Tulou are traditional architectures located in Fujian Province in southeast China. These community buildings are inhabited by Hakka. Thus, several terms are used to refer to these residences, “Tulou Hakka“, “Hakka fortress”, etc.
In 2008, 46 Tulou in Fujian province were inscribed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage. This type of architecture has been listed as an “outstanding examples of buildings by their size, their tradition of construction and function, they are a unique example of human settlement, based on a communal living and defensive needs while maintaining a harmonious relationship with their environment. “
The tulous are large clay buildings (they can be up to 5 floors) square, oval or round almost no openings on the outside except height loopholes. and a large, solid door. Like Peking courtyard houses (Siheyuan) are organized concentrically. The heart of the house is a large lively courtyard that serves as a place for socialization and contains in its center the ancestral temple, the hall of the preceptor and theater stage. Inside the tulou, parts communicate all together, giving the impression of a vast dormitory. Indeed, some tulous not home to less than 60 families or 400 people.
The walls, clay and earth compounds are thick (3 m thick and the outer wall and 1.5 m inside) which keeps the heat during the harsh winters. The circular shape of tulous also facilitates good circulation of air and natural ventilation. Thicker clay transverse walls also served as fire walls inside to prevent any fire from spreading to the entire building. These ingenious and environmentally walls were thus able to withstand the fire, bandit attacks, earthquakes and even the bombing to protect the peaceful life that was going on inside.