FujianTulouare traditionalarchitectureslocatedin FujianProvince insoutheastChina.Thesecommunity buildingsare inhabited byHakka. Thus, severalterms are usedto refer tothese residences, “Tulou Hakka“, “Hakka fortress”, etc.
In 2008,46Tulouin Fujianprovincewere inscribed onthe UNESCO listofWorld Heritage. This type of architecturehas been listedas an“outstanding examples ofbuildingsby their size,their tradition ofconstruction andfunction, theyare a unique exampleof human settlement, based on a communal livingand defensiveneedswhile maintaininga harmonious relationshipwith their environment.“
Thetulousare largeclaybuildings(they canbe up to5 floors) square,oval or roundalmostnoopeningson the outsideexceptheightloopholes.and a large, solid door.LikePekingcourtyardhouses(Siheyuan) are organizedconcentrically.The heart of thehouse is a largelivelycourtyard thatserves as a placefor socializationand containsin its centertheancestral temple, the hall of the preceptorandtheaterstage.Insidethetulou, parts communicatealltogether,giving the impressionof a vastdormitory.Indeed, sometulousnothome to less than60 familiesor 400people.
The walls, clay and earthcompoundsare thick(3 mthick andthe outer walland 1.5m inside) whichkeepsthe heatduring the harshwinters.The circular shapeoftulousalso facilitatesgood circulationof air andnatural ventilation. Thickerclaytransverse wallsalso served asfire wallsinside topreventanyfirefrom spreadingto the entirebuilding. Theseingenious andenvironmentallywallswere thusable to withstand thefire,bandit attacks, earthquakesand eventhe bombingto protectthe peaceful lifethat was going oninside.