The North Cape in Norway Nordkapp is a cape located on Mager Island in northern Norway. With its 307 meter high cliff that is often described as the northernmost point in Europe, although this actually corresponds to Knivskjellodden, 1.5 km to the north.
The North Cape is located on Magerøya the Norwegian island in Finnmark county, and is part of the municipality of Nordkapp. It is a cliff 307 meters high, overlooking the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, it marks the boundary between the Norwegian Sea in the west and the Barents Sea to the east. Like the rest of the island, the landscape is tundra, virgin trees.
The cape is located at 71 ° 10 ‘north latitude. Although it is not the northernmost point of Europe, he is often seen as symbolic because of the majestic nature of its environment. On Magerøya, the most northerly point is Knivskjellodden a cape located to the west of North Cape and 1457 meters to the north. It is, however, a lower altitude and has no a majestic character. The island not the northernmost point of the European continent is Cape Nordkinn (Kinnarodden), 67 km to the east and 6 km to the south. Different archipelagos (Novaya Zemlya, Franz Joseph, Svalbard) are also located further north, but they are not always considered European and are much further away from the continent.
At this latitude, the polar day lasts two and a half months each summer. Heading north, the midnight sun is visible from May 13 to July 29. From 18 November to 23 January, the sun never rises, it is the polar night. The day is limited to a few hours of dim light.
The climate of the northern cape remains relatively cold in winter and mild in summer. Temperatures sometimes reach -35 degrees in January and 20 degrees in July. There are 45 rainy days, 122 days of snow, 34 foggy days, 28 days and 3 days of freezing storm. A Honningsvag, a town about thirty miles south of the North Cape, the average temperature in January is – 3 ° C while it is 11.5 ° C in July. In fact, winter is tempered by the Gulf Stream
In 1553, an expedition with three ships from London to find the Northwest Passage East to the New World. In mid-August, the English explorer Richard Chancellor, ship’s captain Edward Bonaventura, is separated from the rest of the expedition and double the North Cape. Assuming that the North Cape is actually one end of the continent, not an island, Chancellor gives it the name it still bears today. The North Cape is subsequently visited by various explorers, some of whom climbed the cliff.
In 1594, the Dutch navigator January Huygen van Linschoten carries an engraving of the North Cape. At that time, the Dutch – imitating the Basques – had established a base of whaling in the region. The first tourist – a priest named Francesco Negri Ravenna – would have happened in 1664. Traveling alone, he wanted to see how people could survive in the far north. He left a written account of his experiences.
The 1845 years marked the beginning of organized tourism with the arrival on July 9, from Hammerfest, the steamboat Prinds Gustav. In 1861, the Swiss naturalist Carl Vogt introduces the tradition of drinking champagne on arrival at North Cape. The travel agency Cook organized the first package tours from London since 1875. The big breakthrough in tourism but in 1893 with the establishment of regular sea connections along the Norwegian coast as a result of the creation of the Hurtigruten.
In 1898, the first post office opened in North Cape. In 1927, the association Nordkapps Vel AS to regulate foreign trade and to protect the environment from the North Cape is based. A road is open for access in 1956, followed two years later by the first building for the reception of tourists. It will be expanded in 1988 and again in 1997. A globe is installed in 1978.
In 1984, the Royal North Cape Club was founded. This association is open only to persons having made the North Cape, invests most of the single premium paid by members in protecting the site. In 2006, the association has no fewer than 40,000 members.
The opening of the tunnel Northern Cape took place on 15 June 1999. It measures 6,870 feet long and passes 212 m below sea level