Borobudur, Central Java, Indonesia

The temple of Borobudur, Indonesia Candi Borobudur is an important Buddhist building , built in the eighth and ninth centuries to the time of the Sailendra dynasty in central Java in Indonesia.
The site, built around the year 800 , seems to have been abandoned around 1100.

During an inspection tour to Semarang in Central Java in 1814 , Thomas Stamford Raffles , then lieutenant – governor of the island , heard a large monument in the forest near the village of Bumisegoro . Can not get there himself , he sent H. C. Cornelius , a Dutch engineer , do research . For two months, Cornelius and his 200 men felled trees, did burn vegetation and dug into the ground , revealing the monument.
The temple is both a shrine dedicated to the Buddha, but also a place of Buddhist pilgrimage. This is both a stupa and the sky, a mandala. It forms a square about 113 meters on each side with at each cardinal point , a protrusion along the four corners by a recessed portion .
It consists of four successive galleries geometric shape . These are superimposed and the three highest form a representation of the Buddhist cosmology. As the entire monument, these galleries are covered with bas-reliefs, whose total length is about 5 km , recounting the various episodes from the life of Buddha Sakyamuni . These reliefs were carved in situ in volcanic stone gray by different craftsmen who nevertheless managed to preserve the unity of artistic monument.

A surprising feature of these galleries is the existence of a fifth underground gallery , also covered with bas-reliefs representing essentially the depravity of earthly life . Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the concealment of this gallery as a desire to consolidate the building or the deliberate attempt to hide the ground realities.
After passing through the four galleries , the pilgrim reaches the upper deck , also topped by three concentric circular terraces with 72 stupas ( respectively 32 , 24 and 16). They consist of bells stone perforated housing bodhisattvas. At the center of these terraces and thus the top of Borobudur , another stupa covers an unfinished buddha, which is known to have been added after the fact or was originally present .

Saved from ruin thanks to the joint efforts of UNESCO and the Indonesian government, the temple is now restored and included in the inventory of World Heritage. borobudhnjur