Calakmul is the modern name of one of the oldest and most powerful Mayan cities found in low land1 . It is situated on 180 000 km2 of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve in the Mexican state of Campeche , deep in the jungles of the greater region of the Petén Basin in the center of the Yucatán Peninsula , 35 km north the border of Guatemala2 . In ancient times the heart of the city was known as Ox Te ‘ tuun3 name. This powerful Mayan city was inhabited for more than a millennium before being swallowed by the jungle after its abandonment. At its peak, Calakmul administered a large domain marked by the widespread inclusion of its emblem glyph , which is characterized by the sign of the head serpent4 and read Kaan5 .
Calakmul was the seat of what was called the Kingdom of Serpent6 . The Kingdom of the Serpent ruled as Tikal, during the greater part of the classical period. It is estimated that Calakmul itself had a population of 50,000 people and controlled localities located at a distance of up to 150 km2. There are 6,750 ancient structures identified at Calakmul, the largest of which is the great pyramid site. Structure 2 is over 45 meters high , making it one of the highest pyramid of the Mayan civilization. Four tombs were located in the pyramid. Like many temples or pyramids of Mesoamerica, the pyramid of Calakmul has grown based on the existing temple to reach its actuelle7 size . The area of the central monument of Maya architecture is about 2 km2 and the whole site covered essentially a dense residential housing , is approximately 20 km2.