Toledo, Spain

Toledo is a city located in the center of Spain, capital of the province of the same name and of the autonomous community of Castile -La Mancha.

Archaeological remains of the Bronze Age have been discovered on the Cerro del Bu . This stunning natural fortress dominating the surroundings and served by the river. The Tagus protected the inhabitants of this place for very long. This guaranteed them a certain prosperity indeed , many ornamental objects in bronze, silver and gold have been found.

The village decided to enlarge occupying more the other side of the river, the hill of the Alcázar . It is here that form the history of the city itself , becoming , in turn , citadel , fortress , and finally , palaces and military area.

In 192 BC, the Romans founded the city of Toletum (” fortified population ” in Latin ) , which became the Toledo away, and it left many traces of buildings through which it still remains today . The city of Toledo is mentioned for the first time by the historian Livy who calls ” fortified town .”


During the Great Invasions of the fifth century that ravaged a declining Western Roman Empire , Toledo was pillaged several times by the barbarians ( Vandals, Suevi and Alans ) who invaded the Iberian Peninsula from the year 409. From the middle of the sixth century , Toledo became the capital of the Visigoths became the new masters of a large part of the peninsula. In the early eighth century, when the Muslim conquest of Spain , the last Visigoth king , Rodrigo, was defeated by the Arab conqueror Tariq ibn Ziyad at the Battle of Guadalete ( 711). Toledo fell to the Muslims in 712. From there , the city is part of the Umayyad Caliphate , and the Emirate of Córdoba ( 755-929 ), and finally the Caliphate of Cordoba.


The Councils of Toledo between 400 and 702 AD there were eleven general councils , which addressed issues of faith and seven provincial councils , which are concerned more ecclesiastical discipline. At the Third Council of Toledo in 589 , the Visigoths of King Récarède officially abandon Arianism to Catholicism, which is the only official religion of Spain.

May 25, 1085, full Reconquista , Christians led by King Alfonso VI of Castile resume Toledo Muslims .

In the twelfth century , the city became a center renowned translation , and especially a meeting place for scholars of the three major Jewish, Muslim and Christian .


Between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries , Toledo became one of the capitals of Castile and one of the richest and most powerful cities in Spain . Queen Juana la Loca was born there Nov. 6, 1479 , and it is in this city she and her husband , Philip of Habsburg , the future Philip I of Castile , were designated as heirs to the crown. During the War of the Communities of Castile, Toledo was one of the first cities to rebel under the leadership of Pedro Laso de la Vega and Juan de Padilla . After the defeat at the Battle of communiers Villalar , Maria Pacheco, widow of Padilla, opposed some resistance to the surrender of arms in 1522. This is where Emperor Charles V moved the seat of the Court . In 1563 , Toledo was abandoned in this role in favor of Madrid, on the orders of Philip II .

When the Civil War occurs, Toledo is located in a Republican area. During the Spanish Civil War , Toledo was the scene of fighting around the Military Academy of the Alcazar . This is was the site of the headquarters of the Alcazar of Toledo (1936) remained famous , which Nationalist troops resisted a siege of nearly 70 days led by the Republican troops . They were rescued September 28, 1936 by the troops of General Varela, and after three months of intense fighting , Colonel Moscardó , commander of the place , say a word remained famous nationalist troops from the rescue : ” Sin novedad en el Alcazar “(” nothing to report in the Palace “), then conventional phrase in the Spanish army.


Toledo was especially known for its steel production and in particular for his swords . His techniques were imported from Persia him by Muslims. The city is still an important center for the production of knives and other steel objects .